Protection of Human Rights

City Montessori School / Ekra Kidwai

Human rights are the rights and freedom to which all humans are entitled. Proponents of the concept usually assert that everyone is endowed with certain entitlement merely by reason of being human. Human rights are thus conceived in a Universalist and egalitarian fashion. Such entitlement can exist as shared norms of actual rights supported by strong reason or as legal rights either at a national level or within international law. However there is no consensus as to the precise nature of what in particular should or should not be regarded as human rights in any of the preceding senses and the abstract concept of human right has been a subject of intense philosophical debate and criticism.

The modern concept of human rights developed as an aftermath of the Second World War as a part of response to Holocaust, culminating in its adaptation by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the UN general assembly in 1948. the true forerunner of human right discourse was the enlightenment concept of natural rights developed by the figures such as John Locke and Immanuel Kant and through the political Realm in United States Bill of Rights and The Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen

“All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with the reason and conscience and should act towards one another in spirit of brotherhood.”

Although ideas of rights and liberty have existed for much of human history, it is in unclear to what degree such concepts can be described as human rights in the modern sense. The concept of human rights certainly existed in pre-modern cultures. Romans and Greeks had no concept of universal human rights. The basis of most modern legal interpretations of human rights can be traced back to relatively recent Europeans history. The 12 article of Black Forest are considered to be just record of human rights in Europe. 2 major revolutions occurred during the 18th century in U.S. and in France leading to adoption of the U>S> Declaration of Independence and French Declaration of Lights of Man and of the citizen respectively both of which established certain legal rights.

“We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are life liberty and the pursuit of happiness”.

The term human rights probably came into us sometimes between Paine’s the right of man. In 19th century, human rights became a central concern over the issues of slavery. Many groups and movement have managed to achieve profound social change over the course of 20th century in the name of human rights. The woman’s right movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi’s movement to free his native India from British rule. The League of Nation was established in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War-I. The League’s goal included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiations, diplomacy and improving global welfare. The U.N. has played an important role in international human rights law since it s creation.

Modern international conception of human rights can be traced to the aftermath of World War-II and the foundation of the U.N. Human right organization frequently engage in lobbying and advocacy in an effort to convince the U.N. to respect human rights. Many human rights organizations have observed status at various U.N. bodies tasked with protecting human rights.